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雅思口语考官看重的4个评分标准,和10个提分点分享

2018-11-21 15:59 三立在线 admin

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摘要:根据2017中国大陆地区雅思白皮书雅思的报告: 在2012年-2016年的5年间学术类考生口语成绩提升最小,培训类考生口语成绩不升反降。我们可以清楚地看出,多年以来, 雅思口语对于中国考生来说是最大的提分拦路虎。 很多童鞋反馈,觉得自己的口语水平是不错的,但是每次考试总是在5.5分徘徊。其实你所谓的感觉良好,只是依你自己心中的

根据2017中国大陆地区雅思白皮书雅思的报告:

在2012年-2016年的5年间学术类考生口语成绩提升最小,培训类考生口语成绩不升反降。我们可以清楚地看出,多年以来,雅思口语对于中国考生来说是最大的提分拦路虎。
很多童鞋反馈,觉得自己的口语水平是不错的,但是每次考试总是在5.5分徘徊。其实你所谓的感觉良好,只是依你自己心中的标准来评判,真正的雅思口语考试,是以下面四个标准来评判的:
 Fluency and Coherence(语言的流畅度与连贯性)
 Lexical Resources(词汇多样性)
 Grammar(语法知识的广度及准确度)
 Pronunciation(发音)
接下来我将对这四个方面进行详细地解读。

Fluency and Coherence
(语言的流畅度与连贯性)

这一个评分标准其实是两个维度构成的,在口语中,两者不可分割。中国学生的两个典型误区,恰恰是把它们分离开来:要么是在谈论不太熟悉的话题时,把流畅度放在一边,组织句子时停顿太多;要么就是为了不停顿,说到哪儿算哪儿,缺乏整体的布局。
下面给大家推荐三种基本的逻辑顺序,对于想要突破7分的童鞋非常有效,请多加练习 - 这个不仅对大家提分有帮助,也是很好的口才训练哦!
顶针结构
所谓顶针结构就是顺接,第二句的出发点就是前一句的落脚点,可以是谈结果(this way)、举例子(especially, such as)或者展开场景(when you…)这是一种能够有效防止连贯性出问题的方法;
当然,并不是说不能转折或做对比,但是在每一个小点内注意顶针结构,是非常好的表达习惯,这样即便你只谈到了问题的一个方面,也叫做能够develop topics fully 已经达到8分的标准了。
What is the most effective way of learning a foreign language?
The best way to learn a foreign language is to live in the country where the language is spoken. This way, you will get a lot of exposure to the language, especially how it is used in everyday situations, such as ordering food, asking for directions etc. And when you are able to communicate needs in these situations, you'll definitely feel more confident and motivated with language learning and as a result, improve faster.
总分结构
这应该是大家最熟悉的结构了,但是目标7分的童鞋需要注意连接词的丰富和灵活运用。另外,强烈建议最后再来个总结,通过总结把之前谈的大意再paraphrase一遍,能够提高词汇一项的得分。(当然总结时一定要变换表达方法,如果只是重复之前的话就没有意义了)
What is the most effective way of learning a foreign language?
The best way to learn a foreign language is to live in the country where the language is spoken. There’re two major reasons: firstly, you’ll get a lot of exposure to the language everyday, which is essential for language acquisition; secondly, when you have to use the language to communicate needs rather than just pass exams, you'll definitely feel more confident and motivated with language learning. Bascially, if you want to learn a foreign language well, you have to use the language as often as possible.
让步转折
先承认对立的观点,再反驳。这个结构应该是写作老师经常推荐的,实际在口语P3的问题中也非常好用哦!
What comes first at work, being happy or getting more salary?
For me, happiness is definitely more important.
I admit, I’d be lying if I said money doesn’t matter. I do have to make a living and provide for my family. However, if I have to choose between a job I love and a job that pays more, I’ll definitely go with the former, because I believe if you follow your passion, you’ll eventually be able to make good money, someway or another.

Lexical Resources
(词汇多样性)

那么词汇部分,目标7分的童鞋要注意什么?两个关键词:collocations (惯用搭配)和 idioms(习语)。
这也是很多同学容易存在误区的地方,不少中国学生非常热衷于积累所谓“高级”的词汇,却忽视了这些大词的搭配用法;
比如,apology 这个词,肯定是高分词了,问题是怎么用呢? give an apology 吗?do an apology? 其实答案是make an apology 其他的说法并非不“正确”,但是听起来会很不自然。
一个充斥着大词却满是中文思维的回答是不能在词汇方面拿到7分的;相反,把很多“小词”用好,却是四两拨千斤。比如,take 一词:发展某个爱好可以用 take up, 子女跟父母相似可以用 take after, 接手生意可以用 take over 当然,这些不属于collocation,而是 phrasal verbs 短语动词。
有的也是属于idioms的一部分。

Grammar
(语法知识的广度及准确度)

在语法部分,要拿7分确实是没有什么捷径的。因为评分标准里面明确要求7分的烤鸭能够 frequently produces error free sentences 对准确性提出了较高要求,而6分的要求是 may make frequent mistakes with complex structures, though these rarely cause comprehension problems 只要错误不影响理解就行。(当然为了避免错误回避使用复杂结构则是作死~)
那怎么办?复杂结构的准确性如何提高??还能怎么办,多用啊!!
不提高熟悉度,哪来的准确性??那么,所谓复杂结构主要是哪些呢?最重要其实就是从句,时态里面完成时态因为比较复杂,也是重点关注的,还有被动语态、虚拟条件句 。
下面是这些复杂结构在雅思口语中常见的使用场景:
which 从句
which从句特别适合用于在描述完一个现象以后,插入一句评论:
Nowadays many people check their social media first thing in the morning, which is insane.
who, whose 从句
描述人物时必备:
I’d like to talk about my aunt Lucy, who is the most stylish woman I know.
The main character is a robot named Wall-E, whose job was to clean up the planet after all humans had evacuated to space.
where 从句
描述地点时常用:
This is a place where you can just kick back and relax.
I’ve always wanted to go to France, where my favorite movie is set.
what 从句
what = the thing/things that 切勿与that混淆;
描述态度、感想时超常用:
What impressed me the most was …
This is what I like the most about him.
被动语态
据说:
It's said/believed that …
应该:
be supposed to …
描述物品必备:
It's made of …
It's mainly used for …
(如果你在考试中能够恰当用出被动语态的完成时态,那你的语法一块基本可以不用担心了。哈哈。)
虚拟语气
表达愿望:
If I had the chance, I’d …
I wish I could …
描述重要性:
I can’t imagine what my life would be without her.
If it weren’t for the Internet, we’d never see technology developing so fast.
反着说:
I’d be lying if I said…(对现在的假设)
If it hadn’t been for the delay, I would’ve been there three hours ago. (对过去的假设)
谈论后悔:
I should’ve told her the truth.
I really regret it. I should've listened to his advice.
【注意】 虚拟语气虽然结构复杂,但是在口语中很常见,而且通常都是缩略结构,我们在练习时,就应该用缩略结构,这样不仅便于我们快速掌握句型,而且更加自然,注意下面的a都发/?/这个音(接下来的语音部分还会讲到) :
I would = I'd
should have = shoulda
could have = coulda
would have = woulda
shouldn't have = shouldnav
couldn't have = couldnav
wouldn't have = wouldnav

Pronunciation
(发音)

口语能够拿到6的同学,语音这块应该不存在硬伤了,但语调上面多半有提升空间。这里就不泛泛而谈了,只强调一个:weak form 。
我发现很多英语基础还不错的同学,也一直不知道,原来英语里面那么多常用词,在句子中使用的时候,并不是按照它们字典上的发音呢!因为字典上标的,叫做strong form 下面列出的这些单词,在非重读的时候,都是发的右边的音:

/ə/ 就是著名的schwa sound 其实在英语中,很多单词里非重读的元音都发这个音,尤其是在冠词、介词等语法词汇中。了解到这一点对提升语调是非常重要的,有了弱读,连读才会自然。
我们可以看到,无论是语言的发音、语言的流畅度、语法的准确度还是词汇的多样性,都会影响我们的雅思口语成绩。

 

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