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雅思阅读长难句化繁为简

2014-03-07 15:13 三立在线 admin

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摘要:雅思阅读长难句化繁为简:三立在线雅思频道为考生们整理了“雅思阅读长难句化繁为简”,供考生们参考,在此,三立在线小编预祝各位考生都能取得好成绩,欢迎点击咨询雅思报名官网,咨询电话400-0123-267

  雅思考试的阅读部分,对于很多人来说,在很短的时间里完成800-1200词汇的阅读和解答是有一定难度的。若想快速的、高效率的完成题目解答也是有一定技巧的。下面三立在线小编为大家做了详细介绍,希望对大家备考雅思阅读有帮助。

  英语的基本句式结构其实很简单:主谓宾和主系表。主谓宾是“谁-做-什么”,例如:比如“羊吃草”;“洁白可爱的小绵羊蹦蹦跳跳欢快活泼地在一望无垠的广阔草原上幸福愉快地吃着鲜嫩碧绿的青草”一样也是主谓宾,只不过多了一些修饰的词,句子的核心意思还是“羊吃草”。主系表是“谁-是-什么”,同主谓宾一样。在阅读中我们要很快的找出核心句子,不用每句话的意思都懂,但要知道这句话要表达的核心意思,即找到主谓宾或主系表的主体。

  针对这两种句式结构抓主干,即把复杂的长难句转化成简单的句子。

  主谓宾结构:寻找谓语动词

  主系表结构:寻找系动词

  也就是说,无论哪种句式,我们都要在心里默念寻找动词这个原则,以模糊匹配的方式来对应最有意义的那个动词,进而确认动词之前的主语和动词之后的宾语或表语。

  一个句子之所以能够拉长,除了在一个简单句中加上许多修饰成分之外,还有可能是长出了枝干—也就是加了从句,或者是由连词和平衡结构把若干简单句合并在了一起。雅思长难句最频繁出现的情况包括如下几种:

  定语从句:that, which(介词+which), who,…

  状语从句:v+ing

  寻找平衡结构:三大连词 and/or/but,

  not only…but also…

  not…but…

  no more/longer/less …than

  as…as

  not so …as… . . .

  还有一种特殊主系表值得单独说一说:

  There be句型:寻找中心词

  这个句型之所以特殊,是因为系动词和表语都已经以倒装的形式给出来了,欠缺的只是一个主语中心词而已,因此我们看到了there be开头的句子,一定先集中精力寻找到那个中心点。此外,这个句子是一些同学在雅思作文考场上易犯错误的地方。在时间紧迫的压力下,可能会有同学不自觉地受到了中文思维的影响,写出诸如“There are many people do something.”此类的句子,如果在模拟考试的时候发现自己曾经犯过这类笔误,建议大家在考场上给自己留出1、2分钟的检查时间来。检查方法也很简单,把there be两个词遮住,如果剩下的部分还能读出一个完整的句子来,则原本的句子必定是有问题的,可以迅速把there be这两个词擦掉。

  除了be动词外,还有一些there be形式的变体:

  There come/comes/came

  There appear/appears/appeared

  There emerge/emerges/emerged

  There may/might be

  There can/could be

  There happen to be

  There used to be

  There is/are going to be

  其中后两个句子中说到的情况一定是不存于当下的,在判断题(TRUE/FALSE/NOT GIVEN)中容易被揪出来做文章,出题思路是细节不一致的类型,答案多为FALSE。

  结合讲解的部分,有时间的同学可以练习一下快速理解以下这些来自剑桥考题当中的长难句,试着找出句子的主干:

  1. There are examples of languages that have survived in written form and then been revived by later generations. (4A0201)

  2. In New Zealand, classes for children have slowed the erosion of Maori and rekindled interest in the language. (4A0201)

  3. The former US policy of running Indian reservations schools in English, for example, effectively put languages such as Navajo on the danger list. (4A0201)

  4. It is not necessarily these small languages that are about to disappear. (4A0201)

  5. However, it wasn’t until the discovery of the reaction principle, which was the key to space travel and so represents one of the great milestones in the history of scientific thought, that rocket technology was able to develop. (3A0101)

  6. What makes a language endangered is not just the number of speakers, but how old they are. (4A0201)

  7. In the Native American Navajo nation, which sprawls across four states in the American south-west, the native language is dying.(4A0201)

  8. The problem of how health-care resources should be allocated or apportioned, so that they are distributed in both the most just and most efficient way, is not a new one. (4A0403)

  9. Every health system in an economically developed society is faced with the need to decide (either formally or informally) what proportion of the community’s total resources should be spent on health-care; how resources are to be apportioned; what diseases and diabilities and which forms of treatment are to be given priority; which members of the community are to be given special consideration in respect of their health needs; and which forms of treatment are the most cost-effective. (4A0403)

  10. People are not in a position to exercise personal liberty and to be self-determining if they are poverty-stricken, or deprived of basic education, or do not live within a context of law and order. (4A0403)

  11. The spread of monoculture and use of high-yielding varieties of crops have been accompanied by the disappearance of old varieties of food plants which might have provided some insurance against pests or diseases in future. (3A0202)

  12. Animals at play often use unique signs—tail-wagging in dogs, for example—to indicate that activity superficially resembling adult behaviour is not really in earnest. (4A0203)

  13. A few years ago, in one of the most fascinating and disturbing experiments in behavioural psychology, Stanley Milgram of Yale University tested 40 subjects from all walks of life for their willingness to obey instructions given by a “leader” in a situation in which the subjects might feel a personal distaste for the actions they were called upon to perform. (5A0102)

  14. How can we possily account for this vast discrepancy between what calm, rational, knowledgeable people predict in the comfort of their study and what pressured, flustered, but cooperative “teachers” actually do in the laboratory of real life? (5A0102)

  15. A modern hard-core sociobiologist might even go so far as to claim that this aggressive instinct evolved as an advantageous trait, having been of survival value to our ancestors in their struggle against the hardships of life on the plains and in the caves, ultimately finding its way into our genetic make-up as a remnant of our ancient animal ways. (5A0102)

  16. Breeding seasons in animals such as birds have evolved to occupy the part of the year in which offspring have the greatest chances of survival. (5A0403)

  17. This is the process by which plants use energy from the sun to convert carbon from soil or water into organic material for growth.(5A0403)

  18. Recently, however, it has been experiencing something of a renaissance, with renewed demand for original Bakelite objects in the collectors’ marketplace, and museums, societies and dedicated individuals once again appreciating the style and originality of this innovative material. (5A0201)

  19. The fact that children’s ideas about science form part of a larger framework of ideas means that it is easier to change them. (4A0101)

  20. These misconceptions do not remain isolated but become incorporated into a multifaceted, but organised, conceptual framework, making it and the component ideas, some of which are erroneous, more robust but also accessible to modification. (4A0101)

  21. Never before has the planet's linguistic diversity shrunk at such a pace. (4A0201)

  22. Not only did it solve a problem that had intrigued man for ages, but, more importantly, it literally opened the door to exploration of the universe. (3A0101)

  23. Life itself was a perpetual and punishing search for food: some families grew manioc and other starchy crops in small garden plots cleared from the forest, while other members of the tribe scoured the country for small game and promising fish holes. (3A0302)

  24. There is clear-cut evidence that, for a period of at least one year, supervision which increases the direct pressure for productivity can achieve significant increases in production. However, such short-term increases are obtained only at a substantial and serious cost to the organisation. (3A0403)

  25. Of growing interest is the way in which much of what we might see as diaposable is, elsewhere, recycled and reused. (3A0301)

  26. These misconceptions do not remain isolated but become incorporated into a multifaceted, but organised, conceptual framework, making it and the component ideas, some of which are erroneous, more robust but also accessible to modification. (4A0101)

  27. The explosion in demand for accommodation in the inner suburbs of Melbourne suggests a recent change in many people’s preferences as to where they live.

  28. Take the exercise theory. (4A0203)

  以上就是小编给大家整理的“雅思阅读长难句化繁为简”,学会这些技巧,阅读起来也就没那么困难了,仅供大家在雅思考试前参考学习,只要在雅思考试前进行了充分的准备,就会在雅思考试中取得满意的分数的。希望可以帮助到大家,更多雅思阅读考试,雅思报名,雅思培训等相关信息尽在三立在线雅思频道,欢迎点击咨询。

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